Testosterone - the base of steroids

What is Testosterone?

Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone. It is produced by cells in the testes Laydagovite in varying amounts throughout the life of the man.


The effect of this hormone becomes pronounced during puberty. During this period, the increased production of testosterone induced physiological changes in the male body.



These changes are expressed in the secondary sexual characteristics such as a change in the timbre of the voice, facial hair and the body, increased secretion of the sebaceous glands, development of the sexual organs, maturation of sperm and increased libido. All these effects are called "androgenic properties of the hormone." In fact, the male reproductive system can not function properly if the level of this hormone is low.



Anabolic growth

Increased levels of testosterone in the body causes the promotion of "anabolic" growth, which results in an increased rate of protein synthesis. This leads to the accumulation of more muscle mass. Testosterone is the main reason men have more muscle mass than women.



Male body produces 2.5 to 11 mg of testosterone per day, while the female body produces about 0.25 mg per day. The dominant hormone in women is estrogen. The lower level of androgen and higher levels of estrogen in women is a prerequisite for them to accumulate more body fat than muscle tissue. This is why they have lower growth and more prone to osteoporosis.


How does testosterone work?

The mechanism by which testosterone causes these changes is a little complicated.


When it is free in the blood stream, its molecules are able to interact with specific cells in the body. These are the cells of the bones and muscles, skin, scalp, kidney, central nervous system and tissues of the prostate. Testosterone is associated with transport proteins in the blood and reach the target cells. There it interacts with specific hormone receptors, called androgen receptors.


Cell receptors

This reaction can be likened to a system of lock and key, wherein the receptor is activated only by a particular hormone. During the binding of testosterone by an intracellular receptor (located in the cytosol of the cell, not to the surface of the membrane) to form new "receptor complex".



This complex (hormone and receptor side) migrate to the cell nucleus. There they bind to a specific portion of the cellular DNA, named element of a hormonal response. This binding activates copying (transcription) of specific genes that trigger uvelichavanene synthesis of the major contractile proteins actin and myosin (mRNA), which is actually expressed in muscle growth. Also causes an increased storage carbohydrate due to androgen action of the hormone.


When this process is complete, the complex hormone-receptor complex is released. The relationship between the hormone and the receptor are apart. So they migrate back into the cytosol. Released molecule of testosterone is now ready to fall back into circulation and interact with other cells. It was found that the whole process of all these interactions takes about 4-6 hours.


Production of red blood cells

In kidneys, this same process is responsible for the increase in erythropoiesis (production of red blood cells). It increases the concentration of red blood cells and their transport capacity for oxygen. Many athletes mistakenly think that oxymetholone and boldenone are only able to produce this effect. In fact, stimulation of erythropoiesis is performed with use of nearly all anabolic androgenic steroids.


This effect is associated with activation of the androgen receptor in the cells of the kidney.


The only exception to this is dihydrotestosterone and its derivatives, which are rapidly decomposed by reaction with the enzyme 3-alpha hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and therefore shows reduced activity in these waves.


It is important to note that the different hormones bind to different receptors. For example, there are hormones that interact with a very small, but very specific receptors. So vazdeytvieto limited in certain organs. Moreover, the number of receptors that meet a certain hormone can change over time. This leads to an increased or decreased sensitivity of the cells.


Receptor binding alter cellular activity and leads to an increase or decrease in the normal processes of the body.


Depending on the location of the receptor in the target cell and the chemical structure of the hormone, the latter may be directly linked to the receptor and cause a modulation of gene transcription or indirectly by binding to the cell surface receptor can stimulate signaling pathways.


Androgenic responsiveness

Fatty waves are also androgen responsive and they maintain testosterone lipolytic capacity of the cells (the metabolism of fat).


This is achieved by androgen-related regulation of beta-androgenic receptor concentrations or total cellular activity. The level of androgens in the body closely correlated with the level of stored body fat. When the level of androgens decreased fat accumulation increases.


Back to the increase of androgen level increases the rate of fat burning. The ratio of androgen / estrogen is very important, as estrogen plays an opposite role and increases the accumulation of fat in the body.


When the athlete wants to get rid of fat must maintain estrogen levels low. Therefore perfumed steroids have always been preferred in bodybuilding, because they provide an increase in muscle mass and definition without fat gathering.


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